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How have U.S. wrestlers performed at past Olympics?

1948 U.S. Olympic Team

As we gear up for the 2016 Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, a question immediately comes to mind: How have U.S. wrestlers performed at past Olympics?

One common measure is the number of gold, silver and bronze medals Team USA members have brought home from previous Olympics going back to the 1904 Games in St. Louis, the first modern Olympics to feature wrestling.

The big picture

USA leads the way in total medals in wrestling

In terms of total individual medals handed out in all types of wrestling -- men's and women's freestyle, and Greco-Roman -- from 1904 up through the 2012 London Games, the U.S. leads the way, with a total of 125 medals of all types. U.S. wrestlers have claimed the most bronze and silver medals, with 32 and 43 each, respectively. U.S. grapplers have brought home 50 gold medals, second only to the USSR in terms of gold with 62. (That figure applies only to gold medals won during the existence of the Soviet Union. There are separate figures for Russia, which ranks seventh overall in terms of wrestling gold medals, with 25.)

One more fun fact about U.S. wrestlers' medal haul over the more than a century of participation at Olympic Games: with 125 medals overall, Team USA has claimed nearly one in ten of all the medals awarded -- 1,199 -- in all types of wrestling since 1904.

Which teams rank behind Team USA wrestlers in terms of total Olympic medals earned? The old Soviet Union is second overall, with 116 (62 gold, 31 silver and 23 bronze). Sweden is third, with 84 Olympic wrestling medals (28 gold, 27 silver, 29 bronze), with neighboring Finland right behind, with 83 medals total (26 gold, 28 silver, 29 bronze). In fifth place is Bulgaria, with 68 total medals (16 gold, 32 silver, 20 bronze).

Rounding out the top ten countries earning Olympic medals in wrestling: Japan (6th place, 68 total medals); Turkey (7th, 58 medals); Hungary (8th, 54 medals); Russia (9th, 48 medals); and South Korea (10th, 35 medals).

U.S. tops in total medals in freestyle ...

In terms of total number of medals awarded in men's and women's freestyle from 1904 through 2012, the U.S. also leads the way, with a total of 110 medals -- 47 gold, 37 silver, and 26 bronze. That total medal haul is nearly twice that of the second-ranked country, the USSR, which could claim a total of 56 medals -- 28 gold, 15 silver, and 13 bronze -- during the time of its existence. Coming in third is Japan, with 49 total medals -- 20 gold, 12 silver, 13 bronze. Turkey ranks fourth overall in freestyle medals, with 36 -- 17 gold, 11 silver, eight bronze. Right behind Turkey is Bulgaria with 35 total medals, including seven gold, 17 silver, and 11 bronze.

Rounding out the top ten overall in freestyle medals: Iran is sixth, with 33 total medals (five gold, a dozen silver, 16 bronze); Sweden is seventh, with 26 medals (eight gold, ten silver, eight bronze), closely followed by Scandinavian neighbor Finland with 25 (eight, seven, and ten). In ninth place is Russia, with 22 medals (13 gold, five silver, four bronze) ... with South Korea claiming tenth, with four gold, nine silver, and seven bronze medals.

... but tied for 14th in Greco

By comparison, Team USA's Greco-Roman medal performance isn't quite in the same league as its success in freestyle. In fact, the U.S. ranks fourteenth in total medals earned in Greco, with a total of fourteen -- three gold, six silver, and five bronze. (The U.S. is tied with Russia for fourteenth place.)

Which country has excelled in Greco? The now-defunct Soviet Union ranks at the top, having earned a total of 60 medals -- 34 gold, 16 silver, 10 bronze. Finland is a close second, with 58 medals -- 18 gold, 21 silver, 19 bronze ... closely followed by Sweden, with 20 gold, 17 silver, and 19 bronze to add up to a total of 56 medals in Greco. In fourth place is Hungary, with 36 medals -- 16 gold, and ten each in silver and bronze. Bulgaria came in fifth with 31 medals -- nine gold, 14 silver, eight bronze.

The rest of the top ten in Greco: Romania is sixth (six gold, eight silver, 13 bronze); Turkey placed seventh with 20 (11 gold, five silver, four bronze); Poland in eighth place with 19 (five gold, eight silver, six bronze). Italy and Germany tied for ninth with 18 medals -- five gold, four silver, nine bronze for the Italians ... while the Germans earned four gold, nine silver, and five bronze medals.

Team USA medalists in men's freestyle

Meet the men from the U.S. who earned medals in freestyle wrestling competition, listed by each individual Olympics.

1904 St. Louis
  • Light-flyweight: Robert Curry, gold; John Hein, silver; Gustav Thiefenthaler, bronze.
  • Flyweight: George Mehnert, gold; Gustave Bauer, silver; William Nelson, bronze
  • Bantamweight: Isador Niflot, gold; August Wester, silver; Louis Strebler, bronze
  • Featherweight: Benjamin Bradshaw, gold; Theodore McLear, silver; Charles Clapper, bronze
  • Lightweight: Otto Roehm, gold; Rudolph Tesing, silver; Albert Zirkel, bronze.
  • Welterweight: Charles Erickson, gold; William Beckmann, silver; Jerry Winholtz, bronze.
  • Heavyweight: Bernhoff Hansen, gold; Frank Kugler, silver; Fred Warmbold, bronze.

    1908 London
  • Bantamweight: George Mehnert, gold.
  • Featherweight: George Dole, gold
  • Lightweight: Not in Olympics.
  • Welterweight: Not in Olympics.
  • Middleweight: Not in Olympics.
  • Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.

    1912 Stockholm
  • Bantamweight: Not in Olympics
  • Featherweight: Not in Olympics
  • Lightweight: Not in Olympics
  • Welterweight: Not in Olympics
  • Middleweight: Not in Olympics
  • Heavyweight: Not in Olympics

    1920 Antwerp
  • Bantamweight: Not in Olympics
  • Featherweight: Charles Ackerly, gold; Samuel Gerson, silver; Philip Bernard, bronze
  • Lightweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Welterweight: Not in Olympics.
  • Middleweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Light-Heavyweight: Walter Maurer, bronze
  • Heavyweight: Nat Pendleton, silver; Fred Meyer, bronze

    1924 Paris
  • Bantamweight: Bryan Hines, bronze
  • Featherweight: Robin Reed, gold; Chester Newton, silver
  • Lighweight: Russell Vis, gold
  • Welterweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Middleweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Light-Heavyweight: John Spellman, gold
  • Heavyweight: Harry Steel, gold

    Allie Morrison won gold in 1928
    1928 Amsterdam
  • Bantamweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Featherweight: Allie Morrison, gold
  • Lightweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Welterweight: Lloyd Appleton, silver.
  • Middleweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Light-heavyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.

    1932 Los Angeles
  • Bantamweight: Robert "Bobby" Pearce, gold
  • Featherweight: Edgar Nemir, silver
  • Lightweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Welterweight: Jack VanBebber, gold.
  • Middleweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Light-Heavyweight: Pete Mehringer, gold
  • Heavyweight: John Riley, silver

    1936 Berlin
  • Bantamweight: Ross Flood, silver
  • Featherweight: Francis Millard, silver
  • Lightweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Welterweight: Frank Lewis, gold
  • Middleweight: Richard "Dick" Voliva, silver
  • Light-Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.

    1948 London
  • Flyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Bantamweight: Gerald "Gerry" Leeman, silver
  • Featherweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Lightweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Welterweight: Leland Merrill, bronze.
  • Middleweight: Glen Brand, gold
  • Light-Heavyweight: Henry Wittenberg, gold
  • Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.

    1952 Helsinki
  • Flyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Bantamweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Featherweight: Joe Henson, bronze
  • Lightweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Welterweight: Bill Smith, gold.
  • Middleweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Light-Heavyweight: Henry Wittenberg, silver
  • Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.

    1956 Melbourne
  • Flyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Bantamweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Featherweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Lightweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Welterweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Middleweight: Dan Hodge, silver
  • Light-Heavyweight: Peter Blair, bronze
  • Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.

    Shelby Wilson, Terry McCann and Doug Blubaugh won gold medals at the 1960 Olympics in Rome
    1960 Rome
  • Flyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Bantamweight: Terry McCann, gold
  • Featherweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Lightweight: Shelby Wilson, gold
  • Welterweight: Doug Blubaugh, gold
  • Middleweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Light-Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.

    1964 Tokyo
  • Flyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Bantamweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Featherweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Lightweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Welterweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Middleweight: Dan Brand, bronze
  • Light-Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.

    1968 Mexico City
  • Flyweight: Richard Sanders, silver
  • Bantamweight: Donald Behm, silver
  • Featherweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Lightweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Welterweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Middleweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Light-Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.

    1972 Munich
  • Light-flyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Flyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Bantamweight: Richard Sanders, silver
  • Featherweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Lightweight: Dan Gable, gold
  • Welterweight: Wayne Wells, gold
  • Middleweight: John Peterson, silver
  • Light-Heavyweight: Ben Peterson, gold
  • Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Superheavyweight: Chris Taylor, bronze

    1976 Montreal
  • Light-flyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Flyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Bantamweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Featherweight: Gene Davis, bronze
  • Lightweight: Lloyd Keaser, silver
  • Welterweight: Stan Dziedzic, bronze
  • Middleweight: John Peterson, gold
  • Light-Heavyweight: Ben Peterson, silver
  • Heavyweight: Russ Hellickson, silver
  • Superheavyweight: No medals for U.S.

    1980 Moscow
  • U.S. boycott

    Bobby Weaver was one of seven gold medalists for Team USA in freestyle in 1984 in LA
    1984 Los Angeles
  • Light-flyweight: Bobby Weaver, gold
  • Flyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Bantamweight: Barry Davis, silver
  • Featherweight: Randy Lewis, gold
  • Lightweight: Andy Rein, silver
  • Welterweight: Dave Schultz, gold
  • Middleweight: Mark Schultz, gold
  • Light-Heavyweight: Ed Banach, gold
  • Heavyweight: Lou Banach, gold
  • Superheavyweight: Bruce Baumgartner, gold

    1988 Seoul
  • Light-flyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Flyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Bantamweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Featherweight: John Smith, gold
  • Lightweight: Nate Carr, bronze
  • Welterweight: Kenny Monday, gold
  • Middleweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Light-Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Heavyweight: Bill Scherr, bronze
  • Superheavyweight: Bruce Baumgartner, silver

    1992 Barcelona
  • Light-flyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Flyweight: Zeke Jones, silver
  • Bantamweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Featherweight: John Smith, gold
  • Lightweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Welterweight: Kenny Monday, silver.
  • Middleweight: Kevin Jackson, gold
  • Light-heavyweight: Chris Campbell, bronze
  • Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Superheavyweight: Bruce Baumgartner, gold

    Kendall Cross celebrates after winning an Olympic gold medal in Atlanta in 1996
    1996 Atlanta
  • Light-flyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Flyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Bantamweight: Kendall Cross, gold
  • Featherweight: Tom Brands, gold
  • Lightweight: Townsend Saunders, silver
  • Welterweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Middleweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Light-Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Heavyweight: Kurt Angle, gold
  • Superheavyweight: Bruce Baumgartner, bronze

    2000 Sydney
  • Flyweight: Sammie Henson, silver
  • Bantamweight: Terry Brands, bronze
  • Featherweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Lightweight: Lincoln McIlravy, bronze
  • Welterweight: Brandon Slay, gold
  • Middleweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Superheavyweight: No medals for U.S.

    Jamill Kelly finished with a silver medal in Athens
    2004 Athens
  • Bantamweight: Stephen Abas, silver
  • Featherweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Lightweight: Jamill Kelly, silver
  • Welterweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Middleweight: Cael Sanderson, gold
  • Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Superheavyweight: No medals for U.S.

    2008 Beijing
  • Bantamweight: Henry Cejudo, gold
  • Featherweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Lightweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Welterweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Middleweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Superheavyweight: No medals for U.S.

    2012 London
  • Bantamweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Featherweight: Coleman Scott, bronze
  • Lightweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Welterweight: Jordan Burroughs, gold
  • Middleweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Heavyweight: Jake Varner, gold
  • Superheavyweight: No medals for U.S.

    Current men's freestyle weight classes for 2016: Bantamweight -- 57 kilograms/125 pounds; Lightweight -- 65 kilograms/143 pounds; Welterweight -- 74 kilograms/163 pounds; Middleweight -- 86 kilograms/189 pounds; Heavyweight -- 97 kilograms/213 pounds; Superheavyweight -- 125 kilograms/275 pounds.

    Past men's freestyle weight classes*: Light-flyweight -- 48 kilograms/105 pounds; Flyweight -- 52-54 kilograms/114-119 pounds; Bantamweight -- 54-57 kilograms/119-125 pounds; Featherweight -- 60-63 kilograms/132-138 pounds; Lightweight -- 65-70 kilograms/143-154 pounds; Welterweight -- 76-78 kilograms/167-172 pounds; Middleweight -- 73-87 kilograms/161-191 pounds; Light-Heavyweight -- 80-97 kilograms/176-213 pounds; Heavyweight -- 72-100 kilograms/159-220 pounds; Superheavyweight -- 100-130 kilograms/220-286 pounds.

    *A range represents actual weights which varied from year-to-year/Olympics to Olympics.

    Team USA medalists in women's freestyle

    Here are the names of the U.S. wrestlers who earned medals in women's freestyle competition, listed by each individual Olympics. Note: Three new weight classes -- bantamweight (53 kilograms/116 pounds), welterweight (58 kilograms/128 pounds), and light-heavyweight (69 kilograms/152 pounds) -- have been added for the 2016 Rio Olympics.

    Sara McMann after winning a silver medal
    2004 Athens
  • Flyweight: Patricia Miranda, bronze
  • Middleweight: Sara McMann, silver
  • Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.

    2008 Beijing
  • Flyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Middleweight: Randi Miller, bronze
  • Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.

    2012 London
  • Flyweight: Clarissa Chun, bronze
  • Middleweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.

    Current women's freestyle weight classes for 2016: Flyweight -- 48 kilograms/106 pounds; Bantamweight -- 53 kilograms/116 pounds; Welterweight -- 58 kilograms/128 pounds; Middleweight -- 63 kilograms/139 pounds; Light-heavyweight -- 69 kilograms/152 pounds and Heavyweight -- 75 kilograms/165 pounds.

    Team USA medalists in men's Greco-Roman

    This is the list of men's Greco-Roman wrestlers who brought home hardware in Olympic competition.

    1908 London
  • Lightweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Middleweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Light-Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Super-Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.

    1912 Stockholm
  • Lightweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Middleweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Light-Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.

    1920 Antwerp
  • Lightweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Middleweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Light-Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.

    1924 Paris
  • Bantamweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Lightweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Middleweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Light-Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.

    1928 Amsterdam
  • Bantamweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Lightweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Middleweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Light-heavyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.

    1932 Los Angeles
  • Bantamweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Lightweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Middleweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Light-heavyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.

    1936 Berlin
  • Bantamweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Lightweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Middleweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Light-heavyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.

    1948 London
  • Bantamweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Lightweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Middleweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Light-heavyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.

    1952 Helsinki
  • Bantamweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Lightweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Middleweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Light-heavyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.

    1956 Melbourne
  • Bantamweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Lightweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Middleweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Light-heavyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.

    1960 Rome
  • Bantamweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Lightweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Middleweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Light-heavyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.

    1964 Tokyo
  • Bantamweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Lightweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Middleweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Light-heavyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.

    1968 Mexico City
  • Bantamweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Lightweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Middleweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Light-heavyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.

    1972 Munich
  • Bantamweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Lightweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Middleweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Light-heavyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Superheavyweight: Chris Taylor, bronze

    1976 Montreal
  • Bantamweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Lightweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Middleweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Light-heavyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.

    1980 Moscow
  • U.S. Boycott

    Steve Fraser is one of three American Greco-Roman wrestlers to win an Olympic gold medal
    1984 Los Angeles
  • Bantamweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Lightweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Middleweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Light-heavyweight: Steve Fraser, gold
  • Heavyweight: Greg Gibson, silver
  • Superheavyweight: Jeff Blatnick, gold

    1988 Seoul
  • Bantamweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Lightweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Middleweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Light-heavyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Heavyweight: Dennis Koslowski, bronze
  • Superheavyweight: No medals for U.S.

    1992 Barcelona
  • Bantamweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Lightweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Middleweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Light-heavyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Heavyweight: Dennis Koslowski, silver
  • Superheavyweight: No medals for U.S.

    1996 Atlanta
  • Flyweight: Brandon Paulson, silver
  • Bantamweight: Dennis Hall, silver
  • Lightweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Middleweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Light-heavyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Superheavyweight: Matt Ghaffari, silver

    2000 Sydney
  • Bantamweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Lightweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Welterweight: Matt Lindland, silver
  • Middleweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Heavyweight: Garrett Lowney, bronze
  • Superheavyweight: Rulon Gardner, gold

    2004 Athens
  • Bantamweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Lightweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Welterweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Middleweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Superheavyweight: Rulon Gardner, bronze

    2008 Beijing
  • Bantamweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Lightweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Welterweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Middleweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Heavyweight: Adam Wheeler, bronze
  • Superheavyweight: No medals for U.S.

    2012 London
  • Bantamweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Lightweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Welterweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Middleweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Heavyweight: No medals for U.S.
  • Superheavyweight: No medals for U.S.

    Current men's Greco-Roman weight classes for 2016: Bantamweight -- 59 kilograms/130 pounds; Lightweight -- 65 kilograms/143 pounds; Welterweight -- 75 kilograms/163 pounds; Middleweight -- 85 kilograms/187 pounds; Heavyweight -- 98 kilograms/215 pounds; Superheavyweight -- 130 kilograms/286 pounds.

    Past men's Greco-Roman weight classes*: Light-flyweight -- 48 kilograms/105 pounds; Flyweight -- 52-54 kilograms/114-119 pounds; Bantamweight -- 56-59 kilograms/123-130 pounds; Featherweight -- 60-63 kilograms/132-138 pounds; Lightweight -- 65-70 kilograms/143-154 pounds; Welterweight -- 72-78 kilograms/158-172 pounds; Middleweight -- 73-87 kilograms/161-191 pounds; Light-Heavyweight -- 82-97 kilograms/180-213 pounds; Heavyweight -- 82-100 kilograms/180-220 pounds; Superheavyweight -- 93-130 kilograms/205-286 pounds.

    *A range represents actual weights which varied from year-to-year/Olympics to Olympics.

    Want to know more about past U.S. success on mat at the Olympics? Here are three InterMat features you might enjoy: All about Allie Morrison, 1928 Olympic gold medalist from Marshalltown, Iowa ... the 1932 Los Angeles Olympics ... and a look back at the 1960 Olympics in Rome, with a focus on the three freestylers from Team U.S.A. who brought home the gold: Terry McCann, Shelby Wilson, and Doug Blubaugh.
  • Comments

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    UsedToBe103 (1) about 6 years ago
    What would the statistics look like if we normalized each country's medal count for the number of years that the country has been in existence?